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导言:不同于我国国内的大学生住宿状况,学生们首要在学校安排的宿舍内寓居,美国的大学生们更多的会挑选在学校外面住宿。针对这种现状,美国的大学住宅办理员说出他的观念。咱们能够经过他来了解一下美国的大学宿舍到底有什么特征。


WHEN STUDENTS SELECT A college they are choosing more than a school – for many, it's also the place they will call home for the next four years.

当学生挑选一所大学时,他们挑选的不只仅是一所学校——对许多人来说,这也是他们未来四年的家。

But college housing has changed over the years, as dorms of the past have evolved to meet the needs of a new generation of students, experts say. In many cases that means private rooms, suite-style living or off-campus apartments administered by the school. Modern college housing facilities vary by school, as do requirements for undergraduate students to live on campus.

但专家说,跟着曩昔宿舍的开展,以满意新一代学生的需求,大学宿舍多年来发生了改变。在许多状况下,这意味着学校办理的私家房间、套房式日子或校外公寓。现代大学的住宅设备因学校而异,大学生在学校日子的要求也各不相同。

"On every campus, you'll find a variety of housing types and styles," says Alvin Sturdivant, president of the nonprofit Association of College and University Housing Officers-International.

“在每一个学校里,你都会发现各式各样的住宅类型和风格,”非营利学院和大学世界住宅官员协会主席阿尔文·斯特里维特说。

Types of College Housing

大学生宿舍的类型

While parents may remember a shared room with a community bathroom down the hall, that's just one of many options now. Campus officials note that many colleges offer private bedrooms with shared common areas, or apartment-style facilities ranging from studios to models with several bedrooms. Increasingly, they say, gender-neutral bathrooms are also offered in residence halls.

虽然家长们或许会记住大厅里有一个社区澡堂的合用房间,但现在这仅仅许多挑选中的一个。学校办理人员注意到,许多大学都供给有共用区域的私家卧室,或公寓式设备,从工作室到带几个卧室的模型。他们说,越来越多的中性卫生间也在宿舍供给。

"Depending on where you are, students have quite a bit available to them in the off-campus market. In order for campuses to remain relevant to students, we have to offer similar kinds of amenities," says Sturdivant, who also serves as vice president for student development at Seattle University.

“依据你在哪里,学生们在校外市场上有相当多的时机。为了让学校与学生保持联络,咱们有必要供给相似的便当设备,”一同担任西雅图大学学生开展副校长的斯特里维万特说。

As the modern home has evolved, so too have student expectations for privacy, housing officials say.

跟着现代家庭的开展,学生对隐私的希望也在不断进步,住宅官员说。

"For this generation of students, and for a few generations now, they grew up in many cases in a home where they had their own bedroom, whereas in decades past – in a lot of families – children would share bedroom space," says Brian Fisher, associate vice president for student engagement at Florida Gulf Coast University, which has nearly 5,000 students living on campus.

佛罗里达湾海岸大学(Florida Gulf Coast University)学生参加副校长布莱恩•费舍尔(Brian Fisher)说:“关于这一代学生,以及现在的几代人来说,他们在许多状况下都是在一个有自己卧室的家中长大的,而在曩昔的几十年里,在许多家庭中,孩子们会同享卧室空间。”住在学校里的学生。

And amenities aren't limited to private living quarters. Some colleges market their picturesque settings. At FGCU, for example, students can live lakeside, enjoying waterfront views complete with palm trees and aquatic activities. Fisher cites this as a unique feature of the FGCU campus and one that appeals to students because of the range of water sports offered through the college.

便当设备不只限于私家日子区。一些大学出售其如画的环境。例如,在fgcu,学生们能够住在湖边,赏识滨水景象,并欣赏棕榈树和水上活动。费舍尔将这一点称为FGCU学校的一个共同特征,也是一个招引学生的特征,因为学院供给的水上运动品种繁复。

Another benefit of living on campus is that many daily needs are met by the college or university.

住在学校的另一个优点是,学院或大学满意了许多日常需求。

"You don't have to worry about the cooking and cleaning, the shopping, fixing things when they break. You can focus on the experience, like getting a world-class education," says Mari Anne Brocker Curry, associate director of housing for Housing Information and Marketing at the University of Illinois—Urbana-Champaign, which has 11,000 students living in units controlled by the college.

“你不用忧虑煮饭、打扫卫生、购物、坏了的时分修补东西。伊利诺伊大学香槟分校(University of Illinois Urbana Champaign)担任住宅信息和营销的副主任Mari Anne Brocker Curry说:“你能够专心于体会,比方承受世界一流的教育。”

Another 3,000 students, she says, live in housing that is privately owned but certified by the university.

别的3000名学生,她说,住在私家具有的,但由大学认证的房子里。

Illinois, like many other schools across the country, requires students to live on campus for their first year. Brocker Curry says that requirement is driven by university research that indicates better student outcomes for those living on campus. "Our research shows that students are more successful, better connected, more engaged and more likely to graduate if they have access to all of those resources and services.”

伊利诺伊州和全国其他许多学校相同,要求学生在第一年就住在学校里。Brocker Curry说,这一要求是由大学研讨推进的,该研讨标明,关于那些住在学校里的人来说,学生的学习成绩更好。”咱们的研讨标明,假如学生能够取得一切这些资源和服务,他们会更成功、更严密地联络、更积极地参加并更有或许结业。”

Sturdivant says ACUHO-I research also found better retention rates for students who live in campus housing.

布瑞迪万特说,Acuho-I的研讨还发现寓居在学校住宅中的学生的留校率更高。

"Students who live on campus tend to be retained at much higher levels than students who live off campus, particularly within that first and second year of college, which is why you see a lot of institutions with residency requirements for students," Sturdivant says.

“住在学校里的学生比住在校外的学生更简单被留住,尤其是在大学的第一年和第二年,这便是为什么你会看到许多对学生有寓居要求的学校,”布瑞迪万特说。

Brocker Curry also mentions that "living and learning communities" allow students to organize around academic topics. This benefits students, she says, by allowing them to engage with peers on specific areas of study, honors programs or other academic options.

Brocker-Curry还说到,“日子和学习社区”答应学生环绕学术主题进行安排。她说,这有利于学生,让他们在特定的学习范畴,荣誉项目或其他学术挑选与同龄人触摸。

On-Campus Housing Safety

大学宿舍安全

With thousands of students living on campus, colleges pay particularly close attention to safety issues, housing officials say.

住宅官员说,因为数千名学生寓居在学校内,大学特别重视安全问题。

"The variety of issues that can pop up on a college campus vary greatly, whether that's alcohol or drugs, student mental health or relationship issues that may lead to some kind of domestic issues or violence or assault. We train our staff on how to be prepared for all these situations," says Fisher, who adds that colleges are "incredibly safe statistically" compared with off-campus environments.

“大学学校内或许呈现的各种问题差异很大,无论是酒精或毒品、学生心理健康或联系问题,都或许导致某种家庭问题或暴力或进犯。费舍尔说:“咱们训练职工如何为一切这些状况做好预备。”他弥补说,与校外环境比较,大学在计算上“极端安全”。

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, an arm of the U.S. Department of Justice, college students are more likely to be victimized off campus than on campus.

依据美国司法部部属的司法计算局(BureauofJusticeStatistics)的数据,大学生在校外受害的或许性比在学校内更大。

To ensure student safety, Sturdivant says schools limit access to residence halls, typically issuing cards for students to swipe for entry to the building, as well as floors, rooms and even elevators in some cases. Front desks in residence halls also are staffed with students or security personnel. He adds that schools offer preventative education as well to make students aware of potential risks.

为了保证学生的安全,布瑞迪万特说,学校约束学生进入宿舍,在某些状况下,学校一般会为学生发放刷卡进入大楼,以及楼层、房间乃至电梯。宿舍的前台也装备了学生或安保人员。他弥补说,学校还供给防备性教育,让学生意识到潜在的危险。

"There's quite a bit happening in the way of preventative education with students when they're first entering into a campus to help raise their awareness about proper precautions to take with regard to their own safety and security, and the different resources that are available to them on campus, both in residence, and then more broadly in the larger campus community," Sturdivant says.

“当学生第一次进入学校时,他们的防备教育方法发生了相当多的改变,以协助他们进步对恰当防备措施的知道,以考虑到他们自己的安全和安保,以及他们在学校内(包含在家中)以及在洛杉矶更广泛范围内可取得的不同资源。RGER学校社区,”斯特里凡特说。

Fisher suggests parents research campus safety by reading documents such as the school's annual security and fire safety report.

费希尔主张家长经过阅览学校的年度安全和消防安全陈述等文件来研讨学校安全。

"Federal law requires campuses to disclose crime and safety records. They're available on any university website. Parents can easily find that information and review it and ask questions. Administrators should be able to respond to those questions well," Fisher says. "If they can't, that might make parents want to ask more questions about what the campus is doing to make sure their students are safe.”

联邦法令要求学校发表违法和安全记载。他们在任何大学网站上都有。家长能够很简单地找到这些信息,并对其进行检查和发问。办理员应该能够很好地答复这些问题,”费希尔说。假如他们做不到,这或许会使家长想问更多关于学校正在做什么的问题,以保证他们的学生安全。”

While Sturdivant strongly encourages students to live on campus, he acknowledges that isn't feasible for all families.

虽然布瑞迪万特激烈鼓舞学生住在学校里,但他供认,这对一切家庭都不可行。

According to the Urban Institute, a nonprofit think tank, the average published cost of living on campus as an undergraduate student ranges from $10,000 to $11,000 a year at both private and public colleges. That cost rose by 23% at public four-year colleges and 25% at private colleges between the 2006-07 school year and the 2016-17 school year.

据非盈利智库城市研讨所(UrbanInstitute)称,无论是私立大学仍是公立大学,在校大学生的均匀发布日子本钱从每年10000美元到11000美元不等。在2006-07学年和2016-17学年之间,公立四年制大学和私立大学的本钱别离上升了23%和25%。

The cost of college housing also fluctuates from state to state. Campus housing officials say it varies even more based on the housing option students choose.

大学住宅的本钱也在各州之间动摇。学校住宅官员说,依据学生挑选的住宅挑选,差异更大。

For students who do choose to live on campus, experts suggest they dive into the experience. When living on campus, students should expect to be challenged to grow – to learn about other cultures, opinions, perspectives and their own identity along their journey.

关于挑选在学校日子的学生,专家主张他们深化体会。当学生日子在学校里时,他们应该期待着被应战去生长——在旅途中了解其他文明、观念、观念和他们自己的身份。

"Generally, students should expect to be provided with resources in the residence that will give them the best chance of success and the ability to thrive as a part of their college experience," Sturdivant says. "They can expect to live in a community with others, and they can expect to be engaged with robust programming opportunities and service opportunities.”

“一般来说,学生应该希望在家里取得资源,这将给他们最好的成功时机,并有才能作为他们大学阅历的一部分而蓬勃开展,”布瑞迪万特说。他们能够希望与其别人一同日子在一个社区中,而且能够希望与强壮的编程时机和服务时机打交道。”

本文由牛津师兄收拾


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